Sir Ambrose Fleming, British electrical engineer and inventor, 1849-1945
– completely rejects evolution
Wistar Institute, in 1966
– the leading mathematicians in the century met with some evolutionary biologists and confronted them with the fact that according to mathematical statistics, the probabilities of a cell or a protein molecule coming into existence were nil. They even constructed a model of a large computer and tried to figure out the possibilities of a cell ever happening. The result was zero possibility!
Dr. Murray Eden, of M. I. T.
“It is our contention that if random is given a crucial interpretation from a probabilistic point of view, the randomness postulate is highly implausible and an adequate scientific theory of evolution must await the discovery of new natural laws – physical, physico-chemical and biological.”
“The cell is as complicated as New York City. It is more complex than anything known to man.”
Sir James Gray, from Cambridge University
“A bacterium is far more complex than any inanimate system known to man. There is not a laboratory in the world which can compete with the biochemical activity of the smallest living organism. One cell is more complicated than the largest computer that man has ever made.”
In an article on the cell, pointed out:
“Each cell is a world brimming with as many as two hundred trillion tiny groups of atoms called molecules.”
– Most of these are protein molecules. And protein itself is the most complex substance known to man.
Dr. James Kennedy
“That is, the idea of a cell ever forming by chance is so impossible that for it to ever happen, we are going to have to discover entirely new natural laws of physics, chemistry and biology in order to be able to explain it.”
Dr. Edmund Wilson of Columbia University
“As early as 1855, Virchow positively maintained the universality of cell division, contending that every cell is the offspring of a preexisting parent cell. Today this conclusion rests on a foundation so firm that we are justified in regarding it as a universal law of development. The study of the cell has on the whole, seemed to widen the enormous gap that separates the lowest form of life from the inorganic world.”
A. H. Oparin
“Proof, in the sense in which one thinks of it in Chemistry and Physics, is not attainable in the problem of Primordial Biogenesis.”
“I am afraid what I have to say will be just as much natural philosophy as necessarily most discussions on the origin of life need be at present.”
Professor Edwin Conklin
“The probability of life originating from accident is comparable to the probability of the Unabridged Dictionary resulting from an explosion in a printing shop.”
Dr. James Coppedge, director of the Center for Probability Research in Biology in California
– applied laws of probability of a single cell, protein, and gene coming into existence by chance
– computed a world including the earth’s crust and entire array of elements were available. He then had all the amino acids combine at 1.5 trillion times faster than they do in nature. In computing the probabilities, he found that a cell would take 10,119,841 years, a single protein molecule 10,262 years.
R. C. Wysong
“a one-celled bacterium, e. coli, is estimated to contain the equivalent of 100 million pages of Encyclopedia Britannica. Expressed in information in science jargon, this would be the same as 1012 bits of information. In comparison, the total writings from classical Greek Civilization is only 109 bits, and the largest libraries in the world – The British Museum, Oxford Bodleian Library, New York Public Library, Harvard Widenier Library, and the Moscow Lenin Library – have about 10 million volumes or 1012 bits.”
Dr. Sidney Fox, who is the reputed creator of life in a test tube
– Newspapers will print anything. What have people like Stanley Miller and Sidney Fox done? They have taken a number of Amino Acids, of which proteins are made and they have exposed them to all sorts of things – to electric sparks, enormous heat – and have succeeded in getting a few (like 12) amino acids to bond together. The smallest living organism must have 400 amino acids bound together to be viable. If that were the only problem, you could say: “Well, they are making progress, and with just a little more effort, they’ll go from 12 to 400.” But that is not the case; there is a greater problem than just that. All amino acids are either left-handed or right-handed, and all protein in living organisms is made of only left-handed molecules. Scientists have no idea why this is so. It’s totally inexplicable – and, of course, this factor raises probabilities of producing proteins by random astronomically. This is further complicated by the process of racemization. This process is nothing more than the randomizing of amino acids to left and right-handed amino acids. For example, if all left-handed amino acids were put together and heated, they would become racemized and the system would result in an equal collection of left-and right-handed amino acids. But you see any biological activity cannot take place if right-handed amino acids are present. All these lab experiments have produced only racemized groups of amino acids And even if these amino acids were combined from here to Pluto, there would still only add up to one long string of dead amino acids that would never exhibit any of the qualities of life. It is absolutely impossible to create life.